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  • ByCopy

    Hello. Can someone please re-explain when, where, and how to use
    ByCopy? When I compile DemoScrn.bas (which has a INC of PB35.inc.),
    it compiles and runs just fine.

    When I try to include in another program I have written, it informs
    I need ByCopy due to "Parameter mismatch - may need ByCopy:"

    Please advise on how to resolve this.

    Lance, I still have my PowerBasic User's Guide. However, the
    Reference Guide is nowhere to be seen. Can the books be
    purchased?

    Thank you.

    Robert Carneal

    ------------------

  • #2
    When it says "may need BYCOPY" that's only correct about one time in two hundred.

    You probably mistyped something: an extra comma here, forgot a comma or a parameter somewhere else, flipped the position of two parameters around, something like that.

    Check your line of source code versus either the DECLARE or procedure header (the SUB or FUNCTION line) for the function you are calling.

    If all looks correct there, BYCOPY "may" be the correct thing to do, but we couldn't tell without seeing the line of code and the DECLARE or procedure header).

    IMNSHO, one should NEVER change to "BYCOPY" unless you really want BYCOPY; never do it just to get past this particular compile-time error.


    Michael Mattias
    Tal Systems Inc. (retired)
    Racine WI USA
    [email protected]
    http://www.talsystems.com

    Comment


    • #3
      Most of the time when I get this error it is because the declare
      in the Win API INC file wants a value ByRef, like an ASCIIZ variable
      or something. Usually it is a goofy thing like passing it a String
      and not STRPTR, or I pass it 0 when it wants ByVal 0, etc.

      I imagine the same thing applies in DOS compilers although less
      since there you usually create your own functions and know the
      type of passing required.

      ------------------
      If you aim at nothing...you will hit it.

      If something I say can be taken 2 ways and 1 of them ticks you off...I meant the other one.

      [This message has been edited by Roger Garstang (edited February 08, 2005).]
      sigpic
      Mobile Solutions
      Sys Analyst and Development

      Comment


      • #4
        Robert:

        The manuals are still available; click the link below and scroll
        down about 2/3 of the way down the page:

        https://www.powerbasic.com/shop/

        ------------------

        Comment


        • #5
          I don't know if your error is in calling a SUB or FUNTION but if
          you are calling a FUNCTION like I do sometimes (because I program
          sporadicaly and forget) this will also cause that error message:

          Code:
          DECLARE FUNCTION HowOld (iAge1 AS LONG, iAge2 AS LONG) AS LONG
          
          FUNCTION PBMAIN() AS LONG
             
             DIM iAge1 AS LONG
             DIM iAge2 AS LONG
             DIM iAgeOld AS LONG
                
             iAge1 = 30
             iAge2 = 16
             
             iAgeOld = HowOld (iAge1 AS LONG, iAge2 AS LONG)'<-Error. Paramater mismatch. May need "ByCopy"
             
             'it should be called as: 
             iAgeOld = HowOld (iAge1, iAge2)
             '
             CLS
             PRINT STR$(iAgeOld)
             WAITKEY$
          
          END FUNCTION
          
          FUNCTION HowOld (iAge1 AS LONG, iAge2 AS LONG) AS LONG
             LOCAL iNewAge AS LONG
             iNewAge = iAge1 + iAge2
             FUNCTION = iNewAge
          END FUNCTION
          I think it's an odd error code because in fact, I have not "mismatched" parameters. If anything, I've just made a redundant statement but still, it will raise this error. I think "Duplicate Definition" or something to that effect would be more accurate.



          [This message has been edited by Michael K. Dealey (edited February 08, 2005).]

          Comment


          • #6
            You only need to pass by reference (the default alternative to ByCopy)
            [no -- ByVal] ...


            [This message has been edited by Mark Hunter (edited February 10, 2005).]
            Politically incorrect signatures about immigration patriots are forbidden. Googling “immigration patriots” is forbidden. Thinking about Googling ... well, don’t even think about it.

            Comment


            • #7
              >Say if you really want to have faster code or less code in the executable [then pass BYCOPY]

              That is not an 'always true' statement; with string parameter, it's never true.

              It 'can' be true with numeric values, but it depends on how many times and in what fashion that parameter is accessed in that procedure.

              As a rule (my rule, I have precisely zero empirical data to support this), BYVAL and/or BYCOPY offer no measurable performance increases. (Bycopy never offers performance increases, not even theoretical ones).

              Michael Mattias
              Tal Systems Inc. (retired)
              Racine WI USA
              [email protected]
              http://www.talsystems.com

              Comment


              • #8
                I was thinking of ByVal, not ByCopy
                (if ByCopy exists I've never seen it)
                and then I was only half right. For
                numeric parameters ByVal decreases the
                execution time slightly but increases
                the executable file size slightly.

                Passing "by copy" by enclosing the
                numeric parameter in parenthesis
                increases execution time and executable
                file size.
                Politically incorrect signatures about immigration patriots are forbidden. Googling “immigration patriots” is forbidden. Thinking about Googling ... well, don’t even think about it.

                Comment


                • #9
                  The most common problem is with passing the wrong numeric or string
                  type. For instance, trying to pass an integer when the parameter
                  is declared to be a long, or vice versa. Or trying to pass a
                  regular string when the parameter is suppose to be an ASCIIZ
                  string. The compiler is warning you that either the number of
                  bytes on the stack will be wrong, which can crash your system, or
                  the procedure you are calling is not going to handle the reference
                  correctly, and that will cause unexpected results.

                  BYCOPY takes the original parameter and converts it to the format
                  that the procedure needs. If you put parenthese around a numeric
                  type when passing it, you are implicitly asking for it to be
                  processed numerically, and the result will automatically be
                  converted to the proper form - sort of a sneaky way of doing
                  something like BYCOPY.

                  BYCOPY just gives you one more way of being able to call some
                  procedures without having to adopt another temporary variable
                  to act as the intermediate form if the parameter is in the wrong
                  format.

                  ------------------
                  Old Navy Chief, Systems Engineer, Systems Analyst, now semi-retired

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